RUSSIAN SCIENCE FICTION
Course in UCLA Department of Slavic Languages and literatures, Winter 2007
The course gives a survey of the Russian science fiction literature mainly on the base of the writings of the XXth century authors. The course begins with a short sketch of the prehistory of the genre in connection to classics of the XIXth century . The link to fantastic realism in the Modern Russian literature is studied. Students are supposed to read the outstanding examples of this genre, to watch movies screening science fiction plots and to participate in discussions on them. Each student has to write two papers : one (about 10 pages; to be finished by the middle of February) on the science fiction literary masterpieces (and/or cinema based on science fiction literaryworks) by either Zamyatin or Alexej Tolstoy. Another one (approximately 15 pages; to be finished by the beginning of March) has to deal with topics discussed in the Russian science fiction such as for instance social conflicts in BulgakovĎs fantastic stories orthe spatial dimensions of a personal world in Krzhizhanovskiiís writings or the evolutionary time in the novel ďPlutoniaĒ by Obruchev . On February 12 there will be a midterm class work on the period including Andrei Belyís fantastic novels (the first 10paragraphs of the syllabus). Grading will be based on successes in the two papers, on the midterm work and onthe participation in discussing texts to be read and movies to be watched.
The main sections of the course:
1. Theoretical stand-point; science fiction, fantasy and the Russian fantastic realism in its relation to the Latin American magic realism (Gabriel José García Márquez , Vargas Llosa) and the Central European philosophical and/or fantastic novel of Musil, Kafka, Meyrink and Broch (Kundera on the novel, discussion between Kundera and Brodsky). Science, invention and imagination. The predictive power of the science fiction: the example of spaceflights. The individual inventor or discoverer in his/her relation to the scientific/scholarly and public community.
The early period. The Russian prose of the second half of the XVI I I century:
a utopian work Voyage to the land of Ophir by Mr. S., a Swedish nobleman (1783-1784,
published in 1896) by Prince Mikhail Shcherbatov
(1733-1790) famous for his criticism of the moral and social conditions and
the whole state of Russia in his time. In his utopian manuscript an ideal
stratified society ruled by the nobility is described. The work has traces of
the influence of Rousseau: the simple life of non-European people is praised. Different
genres of the fantastic literature of the beginning of the XIX century:
utopia, fantastic tales such as ď A Lonely Cottage on the Vasilyevsky
IslandĒ (Pushkinís oral story
written down by his young friend
and published by him in
1829) and ďQueen of SpadesĒ (1834) by Pushkin (Alexander Sergeevich,
1799-1837): gambling and Pushkinís probabilistic view of life; as he had
studied the probability theory to Pushkin (as for the modern science) The Chance was the ďGod-InventorĒ.
He unites this idea with some
hints of Svedenborgís mysticism.
Other fantastic stories about St.Petersburg; fantastic element in
3. Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogolí ís ĒPetersburg TalesĒ; fantastic and absurd/surrealist elements in them (ďThe Diary of a MadmanĒ, ďThe NoseĒ, ĎThe PortraitĒ with motifs anticipating later Oscar Wildeís story). From Gogolí (Nikolai Vasilíevich, 1809-1852) to Dostoevsky (Fyodor Mikhailovich, 1821-1881) whose early works contain elements of parody of Gogolí. Dostoevskyís anti-utopian stories; ďA Dream of a Ridiculous ManĒ (1877) by Dostoevsky in which an dystopian journey to another planetwas described. The story of the Great Inquisitor told by Ivan Karamazov (Russian literature on the topic is very large). Dostoevsky on Edgar Poe in his preface to a Russian translation of Poeístales in a journal published by Dostoevsky; the notion of ďfantastic realismĒ introduced by Dostoevsky and its development in the XX century. Dostoevskyís geometrical knowledge: Riemannís space in his writings (as later in ďUlyssesĒ by Joyce). Another type of Utopia; a dream of a woman-hero of Chernyshevskyís novel ďWhat isto be done?Ē(1863).
4. Sluchevsky, Konstantin Konstantinovich (1837-1904) Ė an almost forgotten greatlyrical poet and a gifted prose author. Sluchevskyís ďProfessor of ImmortalityĒ (1891); theoretical talks on the modern science and the immortality of the soul. The fashionable exaggeration of the philosophical importance of the second law of thermodynamics: the problem of expanding Entropy. The plot of the story (a sudden death of the wife of the ďProfessor of ImmortalityĒ) is relatively simple and used for an alternative theological evaluation of a modern idea (immortality as participation in the quiet state of the universe) expressed in the first part of the short novel.
influence of Jules Verne:
ĒCaptain Nemo in
The interest of the Russian authors of the late XIX century/ early XX century for technological advances:ďNeither Fact nor Fantasy: an Electrical utopiaĒ (1895) by V.Chikolev and ĒThe Self-Propelled Petersburg-Moscow Underground RailwayĒ (1902) by A.Rodnykh. The works by V.Uminsky (ďThe Unknown WorldĒ, 1897, and ďTo the South PoleĒ, 1898) and V.Semenov (ďKings of the AirĒ, 1909) influenced by Jules Verne.
The influence of Herbert Wells on the Russian science fiction: a connection to anti-utopia showing social oppositions of the oppressed and the rulers; the role of a single inventorand of his invention.
A parody ďThe Liquid SunĒ(1913) by the famous prose writer Alexander Kuprin (1870-1938). Kuprinís novella ĒEvery wishĒ (1917) also shows Wellsí influence on him.
5. Russian cosmic philosophy. The great grotesque play-writer Sukhovo-Kobylin (Aleksandr, 1817-1903). and his philosophy: the idea of ďAll-the-WorldĒ; parallels to his concepts in modern Russian space-science; there might be 3 main types of civilizations: the first one exploiting the energy of the Earth, the second one using the energy of the whole Solar System and the third one based on the energy of the Galaxy (of the whole nebula).
The philosophy of science of the great Russian religious philosopher Fedorov, Nikolai Fedorovich (1828-1903). Fedorovís idea of the ďcommon taskĒ of the mankind and of the modern science: a physical resurrection of the dead (in one of his last letters Dostoevsky praises the idea). The role of the cosmic space for such a project.
union of a scientist and a writer as a characteristic feature of the Russian
science fiction of the early XX century.
Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin Eduardovich (1857-1935). Tsiolkovskyís ideas of space travels (starting in 1878), his engineering projects (Tsiolkovsky and his most important follower Korolev, Sergei Pavlovich, 1907-1966); Tsiolkovskyís first treatises on the space flight and on the spaceships operated by jet propulsion of liquid-fuelled rockets (ďFree SpaceĒ,1883; ďHow to protect fragile and delicate objects from jolts and shocksĒ, 1891, ďThe Probing of Space by means of jet-devicesĒ, 1903) and his science fiction: ďOn the MoonĒ (1893) and ďBeyond the Planet EarthĒ (1920) in which a project of an international spaceship is described. The importance of Tsiolkovskyísphilosophy of nature for the Russian literature; his influence on the great Russian poet Zabolotsky (originally a member of the Oberiu group). The mystic element in Tsiolkovskyís view of his own role in the history of the mankind.
areas of spiritual and material culture and history in which Tsiolkovskyís
influence can be found; the science fiction on rockets used as spaceships; the
construction of real spaceships and (international) space interplanetary
stations being planned and constructed, projects of flights (of robots and/or
humans) to the Moon and Mars; the influence of Tsiolkovskyís philosophy.
Alexander Bogdanov (Malinovskii) (1873-1928). His general scientific theory (Bogdanovís general tektology: a new science viewed upon as a predecessor of the general theory of systems and ofcybernetics), his science fiction ďThe Red StarĒ (1908) in which predictions on the communist society of the future were made, and his political activity (Lenin as Bogdanovís political and philosophical opponent in the pre-Revolutionary Bolshevik party). It is interesting to compare visions of the space flight with destination Mars in Bogdanovís ďRed StarĒ to that of visualized by Alexei Tolstoy in ďAelitaĒ and to other science fiction tales on Mars and space expeditions to it..
Chizhevskii, Aleksandr Leonidovich (1897-1964). Chizhevskyí.s ideas on the role of the Sun and the solar energy: Chizhevskyís science fiction writings.
6. Anti-utopia in the Russian tradition of the Symbolist and post-Symbolist periods. Fantastic elements in prose writings of Valerii Bryusov (ďThe Republic of the Southern CrossĒ, 1904-1905: a story of a psychic illness that ruined a city where dictators ruled ; ďThe last martyrsĒ); Fedor Sologub (ďA little demonĒ[ a mysterious evil creature Nedotykomka is similar typologically to The Damned Thing in Ambrose Bierceís story and in Horla by Maupassant]) and other symbolists.
K.S.Stanislavskyís novel on the future fate of the mankind.
Attempts to fuse science and
occult traditions: the Swedish writer Strindbergís
ďInfernoĒ was seen as an example of suchfusion by the great poet Alexander Blok and some other symbolists.
Ouspensky, Petr Demíianovich ( 1878-1947) and his Russian books (on the 4th
dimension, on Taro cards, on alchemy) written before his emigration; Ouspenskyís
Englishwritings (ďThe New Model of the UniverseĒ); a fantastic screenplayby Ouspensky ; his later association with Gurdzhiev
(pay attention to the existence of a large archive of the letters of
Gurdzhievís pupilsin Yale
collections). The topic of other
dimensions (4,5,Ön) in Russian
futurism, Kulíbin. Cubist painters
and modern geometry (L.Hendersonís study).
Russian futurism and pictures of (utopian) future. Khlebnikov, Velimir, 1885-1922. Khlebnikovís prose scientific fiction : description of new technical devices such as a combination of an airplane, an amphibian and a cross-country vehicle. Lobachevskyís curves (of the Non-Euclidean geometry) adorning a city of the future in Khlebnikovís poems. An attempt to create mathematics of history and predictions based on equations and the idea of temporal cycles (a parallel to ďVisionĒ by Yeats). The role of imaginary numbers in Khlebnikovís writings as well as in the treatise by P.Florensky (Zamyatinís notes on Florenskyís book). A possible comparison to Musil.
7. Zamyatin (Evgenii Ivanovich,1984-1937) as an author of articles on Herbert Wells andmodern science. Zamyatinís antiutopiaďWeĒ (1924). A correct prediction of a social position of the space researcher (a comparison to Korolevís biography). The role of the female heroes in the Russian science fiction of the twenties. The problem of the state regulation of sex relations in a future society. Possible traces ofan expressionist style in Zamyatinís novel. The influence of Zamyatinís anti-utopia (=dystopia from Greek dus- "bad"+ top-o-V ĒplaceĒ) on later works of the Western dystopian tradition originated by Aldous Huxley (ďBrave New WorldĒ) and continued by Arthur Koestler (ďDarkness at NoonĒ) and George Orwell (ď1984Ē).
Other examples of anti-utopia in the works of the Russian Serapion brothers (a literary group of early twenties influenced by Zamyatin); ďThe Apes are comingĒ, a play by Lev Lunts. Luntz and his teacher, the famous founder of the formalist school Victor Shklovsky on the necessity to use a plot of the type of the Westernnovel of adventures (polemical attitude towards the prose without a plot). Mandelístam on the plot in the Serapion brothersí writings.
AndreyPlatonovich Platonov (1899-1951).
Andrey Platonoví science-fiction stories (1921-1926): ďMarkunĒ,
ďDescendents of the SunĒ, ďA Moon BombĒ, ĒThe Ether WayĒ. In these
early works the influence of Fedorovís cosmic philosophy and of Bogdanov can
be found.Much later Platonov
wrote an article on Čapekís
scientific fiction (ďThe War with the NewtsĒ, 1937). Platonov is one of
the main representatives of the Russian fantastic realism. Fantastic element
is present in Platonovís ďChevengurĒ and ďThe Foundation PitĒ as
also in hisďDzhanĒ (a story
of a small tribe in
9.Alexei Nikolaevich Tolstoy (1882-1945); his science fiction: ďAelitaĒ (1922), a story of a space flight to Mars; there a former Red Army soldier Gusev who has come from the Earth helps to organize an unsuccessful revolt of the oppressed population . The influence of the Russian symbolist style on the description of the love story and on the mythopoetic tales on the prehistory of cultures of Mars and the early Earth told by Aelita (the daughter of the main ruler of Mars). The film ďAelitaĒ was staged (on the base of Tolstoyís novel) in 1924 by the film director Protazanov ; the famous actor Igorí Ilyinskiy (of Meyerholdís theatre) participated as well as the actress Solntseva; the expressionist screen sets were made by the woman-painter Alexandra Exter (well-known for her worksmade for the Tairovís Chamber Theatre).
short story ďThe Union of the FiveĒ (=ĒThe Seven Days that robbed the
WorldĒ, 1925): the idea of the
union of the multi-millionaires and their use of the interplanetary rockets to
establish dictatorship. The Moon as an object of afinancial adventure. These topics are developed in another Toltoyís
science fiction ĎEngineer
Garinís Death Rayí (or ďDeath BoxĒ,1926-1927; new chapters were
added in 1937 as Tolstoy was forced to adjust his fantasy to the rules of the
growing Soviet political censorship). There a kind of a prediction is made on
the use of the future lasers in thewars.
The economic interplay of the American capitalism and that of
Alexei Tolstoyís dynamic style; short sentences, mystically depicted landscapes.
new weapons are mentioned in adventurous early Soviet prose writings by Marietta Shaginyan, Valentin
Kataevand other authors.
Several writers wrote socialist-oriented utopias describing
fantastic technological inventions of the future:
(1923) by Ya. Okunev,ďOne
Thousand Years HenceĒ (1927) by V.Nikolsky, ď Happy Landí (1930) by
Ya.Larri. Viktor Shklovsky and Vsevolod
Ivanov wrote a parody of fantastic
Soviet novels on a terriblenew
weapon (gas) to be used in the Third World War: ďIpritĒ (first published
in 1925, 1929, never reprinted until the quite recent new edition of 2005).
10. Andrei Belyís
scientific discovery of professor Korobkin and its possible military misuse.
The image of the great symbolist writer Andrei Bely (=Boris Bugaev, 1880-1934)
as a prophet (prediction of the atomic bomb explosion in an autobiographical
poem ďThe First EncounterĒ, the view of the rising German fascism in his
essay of the early 1920-ies , tortures of an intellectual in the last Moscow
cycle of novels) and his fate in Stalinist Russia. The place of Bely in
Russian and world literature and humanities. Bely and Joyce;
Bely and Kafka (Nabokov on Bely as one of the 4 great prose authors of the XX
Mikhail Bulgakov (1891-1940).
His short science fiction novel ďThe Fatal EggsĒ influenced by Herbert
Wells. A story of a fatal mistake in buying eggs from which monsters appear.
The parody of the Soviet bureaucracy in its relations to the West.
Bulgakovís medical education and intuitive prediction as manifested inanother science fiction story ďThe heart of a dogĒ. The idea of
transplantation of the brain of a dog being implanted in a corpse of a
perished man. Social conflicts of the post-revolutionary
Bulgakovís fantastic realism in his last novel ďMaster and MargaretĒ.
12. The visions of the future: the great futurist poet Vladimir Mayakovsky (1893-1930): ďThe Laboratory of Human ResurrectionĒ in the final part of his long poem ďAbout ThisĒ is explained as an attempt to realize Fedorovís ideas (the great painter Chekrygin as a link between Fedorovís ideas and Mayakovsky).His satirical play ďThe BedbugĒ as a parody of a Soviet bureaucrat being exposed in a zoo of the future city.
13. Obruchev, Vladimir Afanasievich (1863-1956) as a geologist and traveller adds valuable geological details to a plot connected to the idea of a journey to the past. . Two science fiction novels by Obruchev: ďPlutoniaĒ (1915/1924) and ďSannikovís LandĒ(1926). In the first a story of the ďlost worldĒ (foundto the North of Alaska) is given where the ancient reptiles are aliveas in Conan Doyleís novel ďThe Lost WorldĒ of 1912. In the second science fiction novel by Obruchev an archaic race is discovered in a volcano close to the Northern Pole.
great anthropologist and linguist V. G. Bogoraz-Tan
(famous through his studies of
the Chukchee and Siberian Eskimo tribes) has expressed his knowledge of early mythology
in his novel ďSons of the MammothĒ and other writings (originally he had
been a revolutionary sentby the
Tsarist regime to the Arctic areas because of his political activities; there
he turned to scientific studies of the native cultures)..
Ivan Antonovich Efremov (1907-1972). A paleontologist by his education, he wrote both on topics close to his scientific profession (ďA Meeting over TuscaroraĒ, ďStoriesĒ) and also on space flights with social implications (ďThe Andromeda NebulaĒ, 1959).
14.Vsevolod Ivanov (1895-1963) was close to fantastic realism in his novels ďThe KremlinĒ and ďUípublished posthumously and in a cycle of ďFantastic talesĒ also published after the death of the author. In the English edition of his ďStoriesĒ two novellas are from this cycle: ďSisyphus, son of AeolusĒ and ď The falcon ď. The first of themis similar to a text by Camus composed approximately at the same time and also referring to the myth of Sisyphus reinterpreted from the point of view of the existential absurdist philosophy. An occult part of Vsevolod Ivanovís early experience connected to the yoga studies was described in his autobiographic The adventures of a fakir (the first American English ed. of 1935): ď The poor Arthur Gordon PimĒ from a fantastic novel by Edgar Poe had been the main image with whom the future writer tried to identify himself in his early years ofhis vagrant life in the Western Siberia and Central Asia. A story of a specialist in Buddhism in theshort narrative ďThe Return of BuddhaĒ ends in a tragedy.
15. The popular science fiction of the 1920-ies/1930-ies and of the later period. Alexander Belyaev (1884-1942): the ďAmphibianĒ (1928) is a novel on an attempt at biological transformation of human beings that would make it possible to live under the sea; ďThe Struggle in SpaceĒ (1928) is one of the first examples of a cosmic epic story in which many fantastic inventions take place. Belyaevís ď Professor Dowellís headí(1925) belongs to famous pieces of Russian Science fiction.
Kazantsev: a book on the
1887-1950; most of his works have
been published quite recently only posthumously: quite an original fantastic
author with a new notion of spatial
dimensions in literature. In a short story ďQuadraturinĒ (written in 1926, first published in Russian in 1988/
the English translation of 2006) a parody of an advertising of a new technical
device is used to show in a grotesque manner the terrible living conditions of intellectuals in the early Soviet period. In
ďThe Yellow CoalĒ the problem of psychology of hatred is studied to show
the link between theuse of energy
and human emotions. The unusual vocabulary of Krzizhanovskii.
Kharms (1905-1942) and
other Oberiu (=ĒA Union for the Real ArtĒ) absurdist fantasy authors.
Kharmsí play ďPawí, the influence of Khlebnikovs works on Kharms.
Oberiuts (members of Oberiu) and Chinari - specialists in mathematical
philosophy (Lipavsky, Druskin ).
Kharmsí notion of a ďcis-finiteĒ (this- finite) moment
(cf.Ētrans-finiteĒ-beyond finite- in mathematics) as espressed in his
poems. Kharmsí combination of the rational
and the ďtrans-rationalĒ
(=beyond rationalĒ in Khlebnikovís sense). Kharmsí occult interests. Gustav Meyrink (1868
Ė 1932, ďDer GolemĒ, 1915) as the favorite prose author of Kharms.
Possible comparison of Meyrink (who has now become quite famous after the
recent rediscovery of his works) to Bulgakov. Is it
perhaps true to see in these authors the real literary heritage of the
irrational and non-realistic XX century?
18. The brothers Strugatskis as the most popular authors of the science fiction of 1960-ies-1980-ies.. Main periods of their development. The first period describes explorationshownin an optimistic way (for instance, in a novella ďDestination, AmaltheiaĒ, 1960, and ď , 22 centuryĒ, 1962). With ďFar RainbowĒ (1963) a sense of an impending catastrophe grows. Social problems appear in Strugatkisí antiutopian works asďHard to be a GodĒ (1964). To the dark period of Strugatskisí work belong ď Monday begins on SaturdayĒ (1965), ďThe Snail on the SlopeĒ (1966-1968), ďThe Second Martian InvasionĒ (1968). The last somber period is seen in ďPrisoners of PowerĒ (1978) and ďRoadside PicnicĒ (1972) in which a vision of Chernobyl-like catastrophe might be recognized. Tarkovskyís movie ďStalkerĒ as based on the latter Strugatsisí s novel: the differences between the film and the novel are evident particularly in the change of the type of the main hero - the Stalker.
Non-Soviet and anti-Soviet scientific fiction and fantastic authors. Abram
Terz (=Andrey Sinyavsky)ís
fantastic Tales; ďPkhentsĒ: an
extraterrestrial living as if he was a normal Soviet citizen in a communal
flat (there is an interesting parallel in ďQuadraturinĒ
by Krzhizhanovskii); his
difficulties in getting enough water (in reality he is a plant). A device of
estrangement; his seeming
similarity to a hunchback. Social themes of Sinyavsky. Nikolay
Arzhak (Yuli Daniel)ís novel
Voinovichís fantastic novels. Fantastic elements in Aksyonovís novels; ďThe Island CrimeaĒ: imaginary pseudo-real history (comparison to Llosa).
20. Fantastic genres in the prose of the Russian emigration. Fantastic elements in Nabokovís Russian and English writings. The philosophic parable in ďAn Invitationfor an ExecutionĒ by Nabokov; a possible comparison to Kafka. Nabokovís lecture on Kafka. The influence of Edgar Poe (a novel on Arthur Gordon Pim) on the description of a sea journey in the novel ďApollon BezobrazovĒ by the Russian émigré surrealist author Poplavsky.
21. Fantastic elements in the recent works of Russian authors. A parody of the Soviet space achievements in ďOmon RaĒ by Pelevin. Genre of fables revived in his ďThe Life of the InsectsĒ. Buddhist symbolism and modern technology in later novels by Pelevin. The image of the Other World viewed by an old woman in a novel by Ulitskaya.
22.Films based on science fiction (see above on ďAelitaĒ and ďThe StalkerĒ). The great Russian cinema director Tarkovskii, Andrei Arseníevich, 1932-1986. Andrey TarkovskyísĒSolarisĒ (1972, based on Stanislaw Lemís novel), Alexei Germanís not yet fully realized but widelyknown and discussed project on ďHard to be a godĒ (based on Strugatskisí novel).
23.Time as a main topic of fantastic stories starts with Khlebnikovís essays on the subject. The hero of Krzhizhanovskiiís short novel ďMemories of the FutureĒ has been devoted to the study of the problem of Time since his childhood (remarks of Einstein on his early impression of the name of this notion are in a way similar). In ďMaster and MargaretĒ by Bulgakov the devil (Voland) remembers different epochs. In Bulgakovís play ďIvan VasilievichĒ a Soviet citizen is put into the epoch of Ivan the Terrible. In a similar manner in the famous cinema director Sergei Eizensteinís grotesque screenplay ďMMMĒ an Old Russian top church official together with fabulous birds appears in Modern Moscow. A partly comparable plot isrealized in Vsevolod Ivanovís play ďThe Caesar and the Comedy ActorsĒ (ďThe InspirationĒ). Such journeys through time were described in several other works of Vsevolod Ivanov. In his last long story ďGeneralissimusĒ Meníshikov, the favorite official of Peter the Great had been buried frozen in the permafrost and was awakened in Stalinís time (both he and Stalin had been given the honorary titles of ĒGeneralissimusĒ in the XX century known alsothrough such leaders as Franco and Chang Kai Shec). In Amosovís novel a similar story of a frozen man is used to compare two different periods of the XXth century.
Parallels to the idea of the time machine in the world literature are numerous (Wells whosenovel was severely criticized by the hero of Krzhizhanovskiiís work;Jarry etc.).The earliest works on the fantastic shift of historical time: Mark Twain ĎsďYankee at the Court of king Arthur ď(1889). J.B.Priestleyís ďTime PlaysĒ and his essay on time. Priestley on the influence of Ouspenskyís ďNew Model of the UniverseĒ on his understanding of Time.
Frozen time in Tarkovskyís concept of cinema.
The texts that are advisable to read for the course are marked by one *; first of all every student should read:
* ďRed StarĒ by A.Bogdanov;
2.*ĒWeĒ by E.Zamyatin;
*ďAelitaĒ by Alexei N.
*Ē Engineer Garin and his death rayĒ by Alexei N.
Shelved at College Library Circulation Desk 2-Hour Reserves)
of a DogĒ by M.Bulgakov;
*ĒThe Fatal EggsĒ by M. Bulgakov (the book is supposed to come to our
bookshop by the beginning of February )
*ďPlutoniaĒ by V. Obruchev (the book is supposed to come to our bookshop
in 3 weeks)
8. * ďSeven storiesĒ by S.Krzhizhanovskii;
the other texts that are particularly important for neighboring problems of the Russian literature at largeare marked with two **; the reading of all the rest is optional and depends on tastes and interests of each individual student.
Andrey, Kotik Letaev.
Translated by Gerald Janecek.
christened Chinaman, translated,
annotated, and introduced by Thomas R. Beyer, Jr.:
A. (Aleksandr), Essays in
tektology . English translation by George Gorelik.2nd ed.
A. (Aleksander), Red
star : the first Bolshevik utopia ; edited by Loren R. Graham and
Richard Stites ; translated by Charles Rougle.
V.G. Sons of the Mammoth, translated
from the Russianby Stephen
Mikhail Afanasyevich. The
fatal eggs and other stories. Ed.M.Ginzburg,
*Bulgakov, Mikhail Afanasyevich. The heart of a dog and other stories. Transl.K.Cook. Moscow, 1990 (or other editions).
Fyodor,. The brothers Karamazov : a novel in four parts and an epilogue,
translated with an introduction and notes by David McDuff.
Fyodor, White nights ; A gentle creature ; The
dream of a ridiculous man ; translated by Alan Myers . (or;
FyodorThe dream of a queer fellow, and The
Pushkin speech. Translated by
V.L. (ed.) A visitor from outer space. Science fiction stories by Soviet writers.
Dutt, V.L. (ed.) Soviet Science fiction. NY, 1962.
Efremov, Ivan Antonovich. A Meeting over Tuscarora. Transl. by M. and N. Nicholas. London-NY, 1946.
Efremov, Ivan Antonovich. Stories. Transl. O.Gorchakov.Moscow, 1954.
Ivan Antonovich. The
Nikolai Fedorovich, What
was man created for? : the philosophy of the common task : selected works;
translated from the Russian and abridged by Elisabeth Koutaissoff and Marilyn
G. (ed.) The man with the black coat :
Nikolai Vasilíevich, Diary
of a madman, Nevski prospect.
Nikolai Vasilíevich. The complete tales of Nikolai Gogol / edited, with an introduction
and notes, by Leonard J. Kent. 2 v. ;
Vsevolod Viacheslavovich, Selected
Vsevolod Viacheslavovich, The
adventures of a fakir .
Alexander Petrovich. The Destruction of
Velimir, 1885-1922. The
king of time : selected writings of the Russian futurian
; translated by Paul Schmidt ; edited by Charlotte Douglas.
Sigizmund, 1887-1950. Seven
Milan.The art of the novel / by Milan Kundera
door to Aiya; a selection of the best new
science fiction from the
bedbug [a play] and selected poetry , edited
with an introd. by Patricia Blake ; translated by Max Hayward and George
Reavey Midland Book ed.
Molecular cafe: science-fiction stories.
Translated from the Russian.
Soviet science fiction / with an introd. by
Soviet Science Fiction. Introduction by
T.Sturgeon. Transl. H.S.Jakobsen.
Vladimir Afanasíyevich Plutonia .
V. A. (Vladimir Afanasíyevich), Sannikov
land. [Translated from the Russian by David Skvirsky].
Vladimir. The Salamander andother
Gothic Tales,transl. Neil
Vladimir. Russian Nights. Transl.
O.Koshansky-Oleinikov and R. Matlaw.
Ouspenskii, P. D. (Petr Demíianovich), . Talks with a devil; translated by Katya Petroff ; edited and introduced by J.G. Bennett. 1st paperback ed. Wellingborough; Turnstone Press, 1980, c1972.
P. D. (Petr Demíianovich), A
new model of the universe.
into the unknown; the best of Soviet science fiction.
Introd. by Judith Merril.
Viktor. Omon Ra; translated from the Russian by Andrew Bromfield.
Andrei. Chevengur. Transl. A.Olcott.
Andrei. Collected Works. Pref. J.Brodsky.
Andrei. Finist, the falcon prince.
A Russian tale. Transl. L.Regehr.
Andrei. The foundation pit. Transl. R.Chandler and G.Smith,
Russian science fiction : anthology (seven
utopias and a dream) / edited and translated by Leland Fetzer.
heart of the serpent. Transl. R.Prokofyeva.
Aleksandr Sergeevich, : Complete prose
fiction / translated, with an introduction and notes, by Paul Debreczeny
science fiction; an anthology. Translated by
Doris Johnson. [
science fiction, 1968; an anthology. Compiled
and edited with an introd. by Robert Magidoff. Translated by Helen Jacobson.
fiction and adventure stories by Soviet writers.
Mikhail Mikhaĭlovich,. On
the corruption of morals in
Andrei Donatovich. Fantastic stories,
by Abram Tertz. [Translated from the Russian]
little demon ; translated by Ronald Wilks.:
B. and A. Beetle in the Anthill.
Strugatsky, B. and A. Definitely maybe: a manuscript discovered under unusual circumstances. Transl. A.Bouis. NY: Macmillan, 1978.
B. and A. Far Rainbow.
B. and A. Hard to be a god.
Strugatsky, B. and A. Noon, 22nd century. Transl. P.Mc Guire. NY, 1978.
Strugatsky, B. and A. Space Apprentice. Transl. A. Bouis. NY: Macmillan, 1981.
B. and A. The final circle of the Paradise. Transl. E.Renen.
B. and A. Roadside picnic ; Tale of the
troika; translated from the
Russian by Antonina W. Bouis ; introduction by Theodore Sturgeon.
B. and A. The snail on the slope. Transl. Alan Meyers.
Strugatsky, B. and A. The Time Wanderers. Transl. A. Bouis. NY 1986.
Strugatsky, B. and A. The Ugly Swans. Transl. A. And S. Nakhimovsky. NY, 1980.
Andrei Arseníevich, 1932-1986. Collected
screenplays / Andrei Tarkovsky ; translated by William Powell and Natasha
ultimate threshold : a collection of the finest
in Soviet science fiction,edited and translated by Mirra Ginsburg.
Aleksey Nikolayevich,. Aelita
; translated from the Russian
by Antonina W. Bouis ; introduction by Theodore Sturgeon.:
Tolstoy, Aleksey Nikolayevich, Engineer Garin and his death ray ; [translated from the Russian by George Hanna]Moscow : Raduga Publishers, c1987 (a previous edition: Tolstoy, Aleksey Nikolayevich, The Garin death ray [Translated from the Russian by George Hanna]: Moscow : Foreign Languages Publishing House, ).
Evgenii Ivanovich. We. Transl.
M.Ginzburg. NY, 1999 (previous ed. of this
transl.: NY: Viking Press, 1972; also- either: transl. C.Brown, NY: Penuin
Books, 1993. or: transl.B.G.Guerney.
Bogdanov and the origins of systems thinking in Russia,
edited by John Biggart, Peter Dudley, Francis King.
Vladimir E. Andrei Bely, the
major symbolist fiction
of wonder : a critical guide to science fiction , edited by Neil Barron ;
contributors, Thomas D. Clareson ... [et al.]. 2nd ed.
Baran, HenrykOn the Poetics of a Xlebnikov Tale: Problems and patterns in ďKaĒ.-
In: Structural Analysis of Narrative Texts: Conference Papers, ed. by M.Conolly,
A.Kodyak, K.Pomorska, N.Y.University Slavic Papers.
Baran, HenrykTemporal Myth in Xlebnikov: From ďDeti VydryĒ to ďZangesiĒ- In: Myth in Literature, New York University Slavic Papers, vol. V, ed. A.Kodjak et al., Columbus, Ohio: Slavica, 1983, pp.63-88.
Baran, Henryk Majakovskiís Holiday Poems in a Literary-Cultural Context.- In:
Studies in Poetics. Commemorative Volume Krystyna Pomorska (1928-1986).Ed. E.
Baxter, John, and Thomas Atkins The fire came by : the riddle of the great Siberian explosion , introd. by Isaac Asimov. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1976.
: the novelist-playwright , edited by Lesley
R. Velimir Khlebnikov: A Critical Study.
Neil. Vladimir Odoevsky and romantic poetics . Providence,
Kharms and the poetics of the absurd : essays and materials
/, edited by Neil Cornwell. Published/distributed:
Fetzer, Leland. H.G.Wellsí First Russian Admirer.-Foundation, 11/12, 1977 (on Kuprin).
from dystopia : a critical study of Soviet science fiction.
G. V. Ivan Efremovís theory of Soviet science fiction ; illustrated by
John Charles. Three
tomorrows : American, British and Soviet science fiction
Linda Dalrymple, The
fourth dimension and non-Euclidean geometry in modern art :
realism : the science fiction of Arkady and Boris Strugatsky.
Leighton, L.C. Numbers and Numerology in 'The Queen of SpadesĒ- Canadian Slavonic Papers, 19, 1977, N 4, 417-443.
A,A Look of Andrei Platonov Ďs
Science Fantasy Tales in the Light of his developing Style.- Essays in Poetics, Literary History nd Linguistics, ed. Vigasin,A.A.
Patrick L. Red
stars : political aspects of Soviet science fiction.
Peter (ed.) The Science Fiction Encyclopedia.
Stephen W.,The second Marxian invasion : the fiction of the Strugatsky brothers
Zabolotsky : enigma and cultural paradigm /
Reading for entertainment in contemporary Russia : post-Soviet popular literature in historical perspective , edited by Stephen Lovell and Birgit Menzel. Muenchen : Sagner, 2005.Series: Arbeiten und Texte zur Slavistik, 78. From the contents-- Russian science fiction and fantasy literature (Birgit Menzel).
Slobadan. Poe, Odoyevsky, and
purloined letters : questions of theory and period style analysis .
Frankfurt am Main ;
Suvin, Darko. Criticism of Strugatskii brothers.- Canadian-American Slavic Studies. N2, 1972.
Suvin, Darko. The literary Opus of the Strugatskii brothers.- Canadian-American Slavic Studies, 1974, N3.
Tzvetan, The fantastic : a structural approach to a literary genre translated from the French by Richard Howard ; with a foreword by
Vroon, RonaldMetabiosis, Mirror images and negative Integers: Velimir
and his Doubles.- In: Weststejn , Wilhelm (ed.) Velemir
George M. Nikolai F. Fedorov, an introduction: Belmont
ŲŤ‚ŤŽŤÁŗŲŤť ‚ ūůŮŮÍÓť ÍÓŮžŤųŚŮÍÓť
ŰŤŽÓŮÓŰŤŤ Ť ŪŗůųŪÓť ŰŗŪÚŗŮÚŤÍŚ
(ÚŚÁŤŮŻ šŽˇ ÍÓŪŰŚūŚŪŲŤŤ L'espace et la diversité lingustuique).
őŠýůĢ ŤšŚĢ ŮÓÔÓŮÚŗ‚ŽŚŪŤˇ ūŗÁŪŻű
ŲŤ‚ŤŽŤÁŗŲŤť ‚ ÍÓŮžÓŮŚ ‚ŻŮÍŗÁŗŽ ‚
ŰŤŽÓŮÓŰŮÍÓž ŮÓųŤŪŚŪŤŤ ę¬ŮŚžŤūĽ ‚ŚŽŤÍŤť
ūůŮŮÍŤť šūŗžŗÚůū„ —ůűÓ‚Ó- ÓŠŻŽŤŪ. őŪ
ūŗÁšŚŽŤŽ ÚūŤ ÓŮŪÓ‚ŪŻű ÚŤÔŗ ‚ÓÁžÓśŪŻű
ŲŤ‚ŤŽŤÁŗŲŤť ‚ Áŗ‚ŤŮŤžÓŮÚŤ ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó,
Ó„ūŗŪŤųŚŪŻ ŽŤ ÓŪŤ żŪŚū„ŚÚŤųŚŮÍŤžŤ
‚ÓÁžÓśŪÓŮÚˇžŤ ÓšŪÓť ÔŽŗŪŚÚŻ («ŚžŽŤ),
ÔŽŗŪŚÚŪÓť (—ÓŽŪŚųŪÓť) ŮŤŮÚŚžŻ ŤŽŤ ‚ŮŚť
ÚůžŗŪŪÓŮÚŤ (√ŗŽŗÍÚŤÍŤ). Õŗ ŮÓ‚ūŚžŚŪŪÓž
ůūÓ‚ŪŚŗŪŗŽÓ„ŤųŪůĢ žŻŮŽŁ ÔÓšÍūŚÔŤŽ
ūŗŮųŚÚŗžŤ ŗÍŗš.Õ.—. ŗūÚŗÝŚ‚, ūŗŮŮžÓÚūŚ‚ÝŤť
Ť ÔūÓŠŽŚžů ÍÓŽŤųŚŮÚ‚ŗ ŤŪŰÓūžŗŲŤŤ, ÍÓÚÓūÓť
žÓ„ůÚ ÓŠžŚŪŤ‚ŗÚŁŮˇ ŲŤ‚ŤŽŤÁŗŲŤŤ ‚ ÍÓŮžÓŮŚ.
¬ÓÁŪŤÍŗŚÚ ‚ÓÔūÓŮ Ó ŮÓÓÚŪÓÝŚŪŤŤ
żŪŚū„ŚÚŤųŚŮÍÓ„Ó Ť ŤŪŰÓūžŗŲŤÓŪŪÓ„Ó
ÔÓÚŚŪŲŤŗŽÓ‚ ŲŤ‚ŤŽŤÁŗŲŤŤ; ųŗŮÚŪŻž ŮŽůųŗŚž
žÓśŚÚ ŠŻÚŁ Ůūŗ‚ŪŚŪŤŚ ˇÁŻÍÓ‚ Ť šūů„Ťű
ÁŪŗÍÓ‚Żű ŮŤŮÚŚž Ť ÚŚÍŮÚÓ‚, ŮÓŮÚÓˇýŤű ŤÁ
ÁŪŗÍÓ‚ ūŗÁŪÓ„Ó ūÓšŗ (ŗŽŰŗ‚ŤÚŪŻű,
ųÚÓ žÓśŚÚ ŠŻÚŁ ÓŠůŮŽÓ‚ŽŚŪÓ ÓŠķŚžÓž ÔŗžˇÚŤ
ůŮÚūÓťŮÚ‚ŗ (žÓÁ„ŗ, ÍÓžÔŁĢÚŚūŗ, Ťű ŗŪŗŽÓ„Ó‚),
ŮÓ‚ŚūÝŗĢýŚ„Ó ÓÔŚūŗŲŤŤ ŮÓ ÁŪŗÍŗžŤ. ◊Śž ‚ŻÝŚ
ŲŤ‚ŤŽŤÁŗŲŤˇ, ÚŚž ŠÓŽŁÝŗˇ ųŗŮÚŁ šÓŮÚůÔŪÓť
šŽˇ ŪŚŚ żŪŚū„ŤŤ ūŗŮűÓšůŚÚŮˇ Ūŗ
ŤŪŰÓūžŗŲŤÓŪŪŻŚ ŪůśšŻ. ÕŗŤŠÓŽŚŚ ÓÚŮÚŗŽŻž
ÚŤÔÓž ŲŤ‚ŤŽŤÁŗŲŤŤ ˇ‚ŽˇŚÚŮˇ ÚÓÚ, ‚ ÍÓÚÓūÓž
żŪŚū„ŚÚŤųŚŮÍŤŚ ŤŪÚŚūŚŮŻ ÔūŚÓŠŽŗšŗĢÚ Ūŗš
«ŗžŚųŗÚŚŽŁŪŻť ūůŮŮÍŤť ůųŚŪŻť ŃÓ„šŗŪÓ‚, ‚
ÚŚÍÚÓŽÓ„ŤŤ ÍÓÚÓūÓ„Ó ŗÍŗš. ņ.Õ. ÓŽžÓ„ÓūÓ‚ Ť
šūů„ŤŚ ŤŮŮŽŚšÓ‚ŗÚŚŽŤ ‚ŤšŚŽŤ ÔūŚš‚ŚŮÚŪŤŲů
ÔÓÁšŪŚťÝŚť ÍŤŠŚūŪŚÚŤÍŤ Ť ÓŠýŚť ÚŚÓūŤŤ
ŮŤŮÚŚž, ‚ Ů‚ÓŚž ÔŚū‚Óž ŰŗŪÚŗŮÚŤųŚŮÍÓž
ūÓžŗŪŚ Ó ŐŗūŮŚ ÔÓÔūÓŠÓ‚ŗŽ ÓŮůýŚŮÚ‚ŤÚŁ
ÔÓŽŤŰÓŪŤųŚŮÍÓŚ ŮÓÔÓŮÚŗ‚ŽŚŪŤŚ ŮÓ‚ūŚžŚŪŪÓť
Śžů ÁŚžŪÓť ŲŤ‚ŤŽŤÁŗŲŤŤ ŪŗųŗŽŗ ’’ ‚ŚÍŗ Ů
ŤšŚŗŽŁŪÓ ÔÓŮÚūÓŚŪŪŻž ÓŠýŚŮÚ‚Óž, Ťž
ÔÓžŚýŚŪŪÓž Ūŗ ŐŗūŮ. ŌūŤžŚŪŚŪŪŻť
ŃÓ„šŗŪÓ‚Żž ÔūŤŚž ÔŚūŚŪŚŮŚŪŤˇŮűŚžŻ ÁŚžŪÓť
ŤŮÚÓūŤŤ Ūŗ ‚ÓÓŠūŗśŗŚžůĢ žŗūŮŤŗŪŮÍůĢ ‚ Ťű
ÔŚūŚÔŽŚÚŚŪŤŤ ŠŻŽ ÔÓšű‚ŗųŚŪ ‚ ęņżŽŤÚŚĽ
„ūŗŰŗ ņ.Õ.“ÓŽŮÚÓ„Ó (‚ žŤŰÓÔÓżÚŤųŚŮÍŤű
ūŗŮŮÍŗÁŗű ņżŽŤÚŻ Ó ÔūÓÝŽÓž «ŚžŽŤ Ť ŐŗūŮŗ).
ŌůŠŽŤÍŗŲŤŤ ŮÓųŤŪŚŪŤˇ ◊ŤśŚ‚ŮÍÓ„Ó, ÔŚū‚Żž
ŪŗžŚÚŤ‚ÝŚ„Ó Ť ÓŠÓŮŪÓ‚ŗ‚ÝŚ„Ó
ŮÚŗÚŤŮÚŤųŚŮÍŤžŤ šŗŪŪŻžŤ ‚ÓÁšŚťŮÚ‚ŤŚ
—ÓŽŪŲŗ ŪŗųŚŽÓ‚ŚųŚŮÍÓŚ ÔÓ‚ŚšŚŪŤŚ Ť ŤŮÚÓūŤĢ
ųŚŽÓ‚ŚųŚŮÍŤű ÓŠýŚŮÚ‚, ÔūŚšÔÓŮŽŗŪ
‚ŻÔÓŽŪŚŪŪŻť ŤžūůŮŮÍŤť ŮÚŤűÓÚ‚ÓūŪŻť (ūŤŰžÓ‚ŗŪŪŻť)
ÔŚūŚ‚Óš ŮŽŗ‚ÓŮŽÓ‚Ťˇ —ÓŽŪŲů
šūŚ‚ŪŚŚ„ŤÔŚÚŮÍÓ„Ó ŰŗūŗÓŪŗ ›űŪŗÚÓŪŗ (ņžŚŪűÓÚŚÔŗ
IV-„Ó), ÍÓÚÓūŻť ÔÓÔŻÚŗŽŮˇ ‚‚ŚŮÚŤ ÔÓÍŽÓŪŚŪŤŚ
ņÚÓŪů (—ÓŽŪŲů)‚ ÍŗųŚŮÚ‚Ś „ÓŮůšŗūŮÚ‚ŚŪŪÓť
ūŚŽŤ„ŤŤ. —űÓšŪÓŚ ÔÓŪŤžŗŪŤŚ
ŮÓŽŪŲŚÔÓÍŽÓŪŪŤÍŗ ›űŪŗÚÓŪŗŮÓšŚūśŤÚŮˇ ‚
ŮÓųŤŪŚŪŤˇű ¬ŚŽŤžŤūŗ ’ŽŚŠŪŤÍÓ‚ŗ,
ÔÓžŚýŗĢýŚ„Ó ŰŗūŗÓŪŗ ‚ ūˇš ‚ŚŽŤÍŤű
ÔūŚšÝŚŮÚ‚ŚŪŪŤÍÓ‚ ŪŗůÍŤ ŪÓ‚Ó„Ó ‚ūŚžŚŪŤ. —
żÚÓť ÚÓųÍŤ ÁūŚŪŤˇ ÓÚÍūŻ‚ŗŚÚŮˇ ‚ÓÁžÓśŪÓŮÚŁ
‚Żˇ‚ŽŚŪŤˇ šūů„Ťű ÔŗūŗŽŽŚŽŚť ÓÚÍūŻÚŤˇž
◊ŤśŚ‚ŮÍÓ„Ó, ‚ ÚÓž ųŤŮŽŚ ‚ ÔÓżÁŤŤ Ť
žŤŰÓŽÓ„ŤųŚŮÍŤű ŮŤŮÚŚžŗű žŪÓ„Ťű ÍůŽŁÚůū.
4. –ůŮŮÍŗˇ ÍÓŮžŤųŚŮÍŗˇ ŰŤŽÓŮÓŰŤˇ, ÓÍŗÁŗ‚Ýŗˇ ųŚūŚÁ ‘ŚšÓūÓ‚ŗ ‚ÓÁšŚťŮÚ‚ŤŚ Ūŗ ŰÓūžŤūÓ‚ŗŪŤŚ ŤšŚť ÷ŤÓŽÍÓ‚ŮÍÓ„Ó, ŮŻ„ūŗŽŗ ŠŽŗ„Óšŗūˇ żÚÓžů ŪŚžŗŽÓ‚ŗśŪůĢ ūÓŽŁ ‚ ÓŮ‚ÓŚŪŤŤ ÍÓŮžÓŮŗ. ŌūŚšŮÚŗ‚ŽˇŚÚ ŤŪÚŚūŚŮ ÝŤūÓÍÓŚ ŤŮÔÓŽŁÁÓ‚ŗŪŤŚ ŪŗůųŪÓť ŰŗŪÚŗŮÚŤÍŤ ÍŗÍ ŮÔÓŮÓŠŗ šÓűÓšųŤ‚Ó„Ó ŤÁŽÓśŚŪŤˇ ÔūÓŚÍÚÓ‚ Ť ŮŗžŤž ÷ŤÓŽÍÓ‚ŮÍŤž, Ť šūů„ŤžŤ, ÍÚÓ ůųŗŮÚ‚Ó‚ŗŽ ‚ ÔŚū‚Żű Ýŗ„ŗű ÔÓ ūŚŗŽŤÁŗŲŤŤ Ś„Ó ŤšŚŤ.